project WORLDVIEW worldview theme info copyright 2009 Home
Related Words, Beliefs, Background
|Worldview Theme #39A: Tough Love||Worldview Theme #39B: Scapegoating|
or drug abuse treatment programs -- many of these programs include
1) treatment to help people physiologically deal with withdrawal, 2)
arranging for fellow recovering addicts or substance abusers to provide
each other with mutual encouragement and emotional support, and 3)
counseling that typically involves lots of “tough love”.
attitude--a characteristic evaluative orientation and / or response tendency
toward something previously experienced or encountered.
The associated evaluation can be positive (like), negative
(dislike), or neutral (no opinion.) Beyond this
evaluation--which may or may not be directly communicated--observing the
particular response allows more about the underlying attitude to be
form based on inputs from three domains: 1) cognitive (thoughts,
beliefs), 2) affective (emotions, feelings), and 3) conative (volition,
action tendency or disposition).
change, factors in--generally
people's attitudes change for various reasons, including 1) as a result
of learning, 2) in response
to reasoned persuasion directed at them, 3) in response to an emotional
appeal directed at them, and 4) to relieve tension by reducing or
eliminating a perceived inconsistency or cognitive dissonance.
A corollary of this is that attitude change is less likely to
occur when such consistency is already present.
delaying gratification--the ability to postpone receiving some reward and control impulses pushing for instant gratification. Those possessing this are believed to be more emotionally mature than those lacking it.
discipline vs. punishment--the former refers to treatment that brings someone under control or imposes order upon them; the latter to retributive (meaning paying someone back) treatment that involves suffering, pain or loss. Discipline is designed to correct, reform or rehabilitate, punishment to penalize for wrongdoing.
discovery learning--involves teachers designing learning environments that maximize the chances for students learning by discovering facts, relationships, etc. themselves. Such an inquiry-based educational approach can be exciting and maximize chances for students remembering / retaining what they learn, but it can be both inefficient in terms of what is learned per time invested and frustrating for those students who don't make the intended discoveries!
empathy -- concisely it refers to “fellow feeling” , that is imagining that you are in the other person’s shoes and experiencing his or her feelings, struggles, etc. Emotionally immature people, in particular those who after experiencing so much pain as children have learned how to block it, may not feel compassion for other's pain. Empathizing with others thus requires being in touch with your own feelings.
effectiveness, behavioral model--according
to this model the effective communicator 1) has social confidence, 2)
creates a sense of togetherness, 3) controls and monitors the
interaction so that both speaker and listener(s) are satisfied, 4)
expresses a feeling of genuine involvement, and 5) is attentive to,
listens, elicits, adapts to and is concerned with the needs and feelings
of the audience.
effectiveness, humanistic model--
according to this model the effective communicator possesses these
qualities: 1) openness --besides disclosing his or her thoughts and
feelings, this includes taking responsibility for them and reacting
honestly to feedback others provide,
2) empathy, 3) supportiveness--includes being tentative rather
than certain, and accepting or descriptive rather than judgmental, 4)
positiveness--both in one's own attitude but also in providing others
with positive reinforcement, and 5) the ability to communicate as an
equal and to give others "unconditional positive regard" (as
humanistic psychology founder Carl Rogers put it.)
love--one of those difficult to define terms, since its meaning varies between cultures and, within a given culture, there are typically many different types of love. Here we limit the discussion to the kind of love that exists between people. Whereas the ancient Greeks had different words for altruistic love (agape), love between siblings or friends (philia), and desirous, sexual love (eros), in English, this single word can refer a range of emotions ranging from compassion to lust. While dictionaries may have multiple definitions built on degrees of and reasons for attachment or affection, attempts at providing universal, single sentence definitions of love are harder to find. Here are two: 1) "that condition in which the happiness of another person is essential to your own" (from Robert Heinlein, in Stranger in a Strange Land, and 2) "the will to extend one's self for the purpose of nurturing one's own or another's spiritual growth" (from Scott Peck, in The Road Less Traveled).
love vs. hate–Collier describes love as having to do "with bringing together into a whole that which belongs together" and hate "with enforcing separation and difference, driving apart [what is] inherently whole."
military education and training--its goal is to prepare individuals for a life of military service. It can begin in private military schools where parents send their young children, become physically demanding in the basic training of new military recruits, and culminate as some become military officers at prestigious national military academies.
nepotism -- preferential treatment or favoritism given to a relative with respect to hiring decisions or filling appointed positions.
non-verbal communication--communication that occurs without words where messages (both intended and unintended) are sent using eye contact, facial expressions, voice quality or emotional content, gestures, body language, posture, dress, hairstyle, body adornment, etc. While such communication can (either intentionally or unintentionally) transmit information, more importantly it can transmit feelings and attitudes.
overprotection -- behavior that parents engage in when their child fails to become independent, but remains excessively dependent. It can involve be any of the following in excess: pampering, mollycoddling, sheltering, spoiling, indulging, encapsulating, and being solicitous.
--Given that the primary task of parents is to influence, teach, and
control their children, different parenting styles emerge based on
parents' differing behavioral control strategies, and the degree of
parental responsiveness (warmth / supportiveness).
General styles commonly seen enough by researchers to have been
named include: indulgent (or permissive) parents, authoritarian
parents (demanding but not responsive), authoritative parents (demanding
and responsive), and uninvolved parents.
paternalism-- a system in which adults are treated in a fatherly way like children, with their conduct regulated and their needs met. Typically in exchange for this care, the authority expects loyalty and that those receiving the care will accept their relinquishing of personal control.
permissiveness -- a liberal orientation adopted by some in positions of authority in which those who might otherwise be dominated and controlled are instead granted considerable freedom as to how they can behave, and behavior that some might see as a transgression is instead viewed with leniency.
personal responsibility, accepting -- Before an individual can overcome some personal difficulty or solve a personal problem, he or she needs to acknowledge that the difficulty or problem exists, by saying something like, “This problem is mine and I must solve it”. In this context, taking personal responsibility means that you don’t ignore difficulties or problems, expect others to solve them for you, or shift the blame to others. In a family or social context, taking personal responsibility can mean voluntarily limiting your choices or restraining yourself for the good of the family, tribe, village, community or whatever. Richard Critchfield refers to this as “the freedom to choose self responsibility”.
Protestant work ethic -- an ethic based on self reliance, hard work and frugality being the path to salvation that has been important in shaping post Reformation western (especially American) society of the last five hundred years. Thus, ingrained in my people’s heads, since their earliest childhood, were sayings like “God helps those who help themselves”, “Idle hands are the devil’s workshop”, “A penny saved is a penny earned”, etc. Only recently has a consumption ethic begun to seriously compete with, some would say replace, this work ethic.
self control -- generally this refers to exercising restraint over one’s impulses, desires and emotions. Often it can involve deferring a reward or delaying gratification --an ability that many cite as a sign of emotional maturity or even intelligence. Some see the process of exhibiting self control as involving a battle between different parts of the mind.
shame -- a state of mind characterized by belief that one has acted
dishonorably or ridiculously and that other people are also aware of
stroking--rather than being indifferent to another, this generally refers to positively acknowledging the person by complimenting, recognizing, and other verbal or non-verbal communication chosen to make that person feel good.
tough love--treating someone you care about harshly --often by compassionately forcing them to face the consequences of their reckless, dangerous actions or self-destructive behavior--in an effort to help them in the long run.
unsolicited advice—telling someone what they should do without their asking for your opinion or help. If you have legitimate authority over the person getting the advice (e.g. you’re his or her boss, teacher, doctor, etc) then your communication may be viewed as instructive, helpful, or supplying guidance (Although even then, carried to extreme it can be micromanaging.) Otherwise this behavior may be thought of as meddlesome and may be fended off with a “Mind your own business!” admonition.
wishful thinking--involves interpreting events / actions of others, decision-making and forming beliefs based on what one desires to be true (rather than what is true) or what is pleasing to imagine (rather than facing the (perhaps grim?) reality behind a situation). A related orientation-- involving deluding oneself and similarly lacking in rational analysis / real world grounding--is "wishing makes it so." This simplistic, fairy tale, magical, childhood fantasy way of dealing with problems is to be contrasted with the planning / hard work / repeated trials before success that adults solving real problems more typically are faced with.
Worldview Themes #39B and #16 -- these themes
involve orientations, beliefs or behavior that are (more or less)
Contrast Worldview Themes #39B and #32 -- these themes involve orientations, beliefs or behavior that are (more or less) diametrically opposed!
blame--is placed by a displeased angry person on another person, persons, or an institution to communicate that they are believed to be responsible or at fault for the perceived (real or imagined) offense. Blame involves making a judgment, serving notice that another is being held accountable, and potentially seeking justice.
brainwashing -- a forcible indoctrination to persuade someone to give up certain beliefs, attitudes and practices in favor of those espoused by whomever is behind the brainwashing
dehumanizing before killing -- based on the idea that it is easier to kill people who are seen as less than human, before such killing a dehumanizing process must take place. This may begin with discriminating, perhaps tagging with derogatory epithet, scapegoating, and lead to generally “psychically numbing” oneself to the reality that the intended victims are fellow human beings.
Devil, the--conceived of in various religions as the supreme supernatural evil being and enemy of God. Often depicted (especially in Judeo-Christian-Islamic traditions) as tempting humans by offering them something they desire in exchange for their soul, the Devil is supposedly assisted by evil spirits or demons. Most people who believe in the Devil conceive of God as a moralist. The Devil has long served as a scapegoat: those who did evil acts could claim they were possessed and blame it on him!
dividing people, tactics used to do this -- those who fear the collective strength of people who have organized and united to form a group, often seek to exploit differences within the group and destroy its populist mission. Differences exploited often include race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class -- but fracturing can occur along many potential fault lines if outsiders are working to encourage it. After the fracturing, people who previously fully embraced populism may have moved away from it (to some extent) and toward individualism, and blame, dissension, finger-pointing, lack of trust, etc. may exist where previously they didn’t.
discrimination-- prejudicial treatment of people based on their being different (in race, religion, appearance, ability, etc.) In some jurisdictions certain forms of discrimination are outlawed; elsewhere they can lead to policies and practices that harm particular groups.
ethnocentrism-- adopting the social standards of one’s own culture or ethnic group as the basis for evaluating the social practices, customs, beliefs, etc. of another culture -- and doing so because you believe your society’s values and way of living are superior to those of other cultures.
fascism -- a centralized authoritarian system of government that exalts law and order, national pride, race, economic and social regimentation, and the survival of the fittest , while suppressing dissent, and trampling individual freedom. Playing on prejudice in using propaganda and scapegoating minorities are among tactics used by fascists.
fear--a strong, primary emotion associated with unpleasant anticipation of danger and pain.
genocide -- the deliberate, systematic mass slaughter of an ethnic, political or cultural group. 20th century examples of genocide include the Nazi perpetrated slaughter of Jews during World War II, and slaughters in Armenia, Cambodia and Rwanda.
to the FBI, this is "a criminal offense committed against a person,
property or society which is motivated, in whole or in part, by the
offender's bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual
orientation, or ethnicity/national origin."
Unlike conventional crimes, hate crimes are often intended to
strike fear in, and intimidate, the targeted group.
homophobia -- fear of homosexuals, typically associated with discrimination toward them.
misogyny -- hatred of women.
nations vs. nation states--the former are defined by ethnic / cultural ties, the latter as a sovereign political unit with full authority over its internal and external affairs. For example, the Navaho nation exists within the USA nation state.
propaganda -- broadly speaking, information that is designed and disseminated as part of a concerted effort to influence what individuals believe or want, and manipulate public opinion and desires.
racism -- a negative attitude toward members of a particular race based on stereotypes and belief in the inferior nature of members of that race in comparison to other human beings (and in racial superiority of some races over others in general).
sexism--when one needlessly differentiates, discriminates, or even hates based on a person's sex.
vigilantism--a sort of mob justice that results when people take the law into their own hands. This can result if there is a perceived gap between crime and punishment.
xenophobia--a fear of foreigners or strangers
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